All too often, our yards tend to take after someone else’s idea of proper landscaping, with a heavy focus on lawns, popular trees, shrubs, and ornamentals, all with their own designated space in the yard, and yet this approach runs counter to how nature does things and can end up using more resources (time, fuel, water) to achieve less.
A far better option is to mimic the way that forests grow in nature, with plenty of diversity and an abundance of soil fertility, with multiple layers of plants that serve to nurture and protect each other. That’s the approach that Shubhendu Sharma takes with his mini-forests, which allows him to create “ultra-dense, biodiverse mini-forests of native species in urban areas” that end up being maintenance-free and self-sustaining.
On the TED blog, he briefly breaks down the process into six steps:
First, you start with soil. We identify what nutrition the soil lacks. Then we identify what species we should be growing in this soil, depending on climate. We then identify locally abundant biomass available in that region to give the soil whatever nourishment it needs. This is typically an agricultural or industrial byproduct — like chicken manure or press mud, a byproduct of sugar production — but it can be almost anything. We’ve made a rule that it must come from within 50 kilometers of the site, which means we have to be flexible. Once we’ve amended the soil to a depth of one meter, we plant saplings that are up to 80 cm high, packing them in very densely — three to five saplings per square meter. The forest itself must cover a 100-square-meter minimum area. This grows into a forest so dense that after eight months, sunlight can’t reach the ground. At this point, every drop of rain that falls is conserved, and every leaf that falls is converted into humus. The more the forest grows, the more it generates nutrients for itself, accelerating growth. This density also means that individual trees begin competing for sunlight — another reason these forests grow so fast.